Russia's Lavrov (R) in talks with Ukraine's Kuleba - but there was no immediate breakthrough
Speaking after the meeting in Turkey, Dmytro Kuleba said that the demands his Russian counterpart Sergei Lavrov had made amounted to a surrender.
Mr Lavrov meanwhile said his country's military operation was going to plan.
The talks come after Russia bombed a children's hospital, which Ukraine said was a "war crime".
Officials say three people including a child died in the attack in the south-eastern city of Mariupol.
Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine two weeks ago and more than 2.3 million people have since fled the country.
The worst humanitarian situation was in Mariupol, Mr Kuleba said, where residents have been trapped for days in freezing temperatures without electricity or water.
But Russia had not committed to establishing a humanitarian corridor there and had also not responded to proposals for a 24-hour humanitarian ceasefire across Ukraine, he said.
"I want to repeat that Ukraine has not surrendered, does not surrender, and will not surrender," he said, adding that he was willing to continue meeting.
For his part, the Russian foreign minister offered no concessions and repeated demands that Ukraine be disarmed and accept neutral status. Moscow was waiting for a reply from Kyiv, he said.
Mr Lavrov also accused the West of fuelling the conflict by supplying weapons to Ukraine.
Russia would cope with Western sanctions and "come out of the crisis with a better psychology and conscience", he said.
"I assure you we will cope and will do everything not to rely on the West ever, in any areas of our lives," he said.
Outcry at hospital bombing
UN Secretary General António Guterres described the attack as "horrific" and the US accused Russia of a "barbaric use of military force to go after innocent civilians".
But at his press conference Mr Lavrov dismissed allegation of a war crime in Mariupol, alleging that the maternity hospital had been occupied by Ukrainian forces.
Mariupol - where about 400,000 people live - has been surrounded by Russian forces for several days, and repeated attempts at a ceasefire to allow civilians to leave have broken down.
"The whole city remains without electricity, water, food, whatever and people are dying because of dehydration," Olena Stokoz of Ukraine's Red Cross told the BBC on Wednesday.
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